The Self-Defining Memories Center & Web-Source

Jefferson A. Singer, Ph.D
Connecticut College

Self-Defining Memory & Related Autobiographical Memory Articles & Chapters









Prior to 2000

Singer, J. A. & Conway, M. A. (2011). Reconsidering therapeutic action: Loewald, cognitive neuroscience, and the integration of
             memory’s duality. International Journal of Psychoanalysis92 (5), 1183-1207.
Singer, J. A. & Labunko-Messier, B. (2010). Using self-defining memories in couples therapy with older adults. In G. Kenyon, E. 
             Bohlmeijer, and W. Randall (Eds.) Storying later life: Issues, investigations, and interventions in narrative gerontology (pp. 
             213-234). New York: Oxford University.
Lardi, C., D'Argembeau, A., Chanal, J., Ghisletta, P., & Van der Linden, M. (2010). Further characterization of self-defining memories
             in young adults: A study of a Swiss sample. Memory, 18 (3), 293-309.
Baddeley, J. & Singer, J. A. (2010). A loss in the family: Silence, memory, and narrative identity after bereavement. Memory, 
             18, 198-207.
McLean, K. C. & Pasupathi, M. (2011). Old, new, borrowed, blue? The emergence and retention of personal meaning in 
             autobiographical storytelling. Journal of Personality79 (1), 135-163.
Berna, F., Bennouna-Greene, M., Potheegadoo, J., Verry, P., Conway, M. A., & Danion, J. (2011). Self-defining memories related to 
             illness and integration into the self in patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 189 (1), 49-54.
Lardi, C., Ghisletta, P., & Van der Linden, M. (2012). What is the nature of the self-defining memories of repression-prone 
             individuals? Self and Identity, 11(4), 492-515.
Baddeley, J. L. & Singer, J. A. (2009). A social interactional model of bereavement narrative disclosure. Review of General Psychology,
             13 (3), 202-218.
Crane, L., Goddard, L., & Pring, L. (2009). Brief report: Self-defining and everyday autobiographical memories in adults with autism 
             spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders40 (3), 383-391.
Pasupathi, M., McLean, K. C., & Weeks, T. (2009). To tell or not to tell: Disclosure and the narrative self. Journal of Personality77 (1), 
Martinelli, P. & Piolino, P.  (2009). Self-defining memories: Last episodic memory bastion in normal aging? Psychol Neuropsychiatr 
             Viell7(3), 151-167.
Raffard, S., D'Argembeau, A., Lardi, C., Bayard, S., Boulenger, J. P., & Van der Linden, M. (2009). Exploring self-defining memories in
             schizophrenia. Memory, 17 (1), 26-38. 
Maccallum, F. & Bryant, R. A. (2008). Self-defining memories in complicated grief. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 1311-1315.
McLean, K. C. (2008). Stories of the young and the old: Personal continuity and narrative identity. Developmental Psychology44, 254-264.
Singer, J. A., Baddeley, J., & Frantsve, L. (2008). Supervision of narrative-based psychotherapy. In A. K. Hess, K. D. Hess, and T. H. 
             Hess (Eds.), Psychotherapy supervision: Theory, research and practice, 2nd ed. (pp. 114-136). New York: Wiley.
Sutin, A. R. & Robins, R. W. (2008). Going forward by drawing from the past: Personal strivings, personally meaningful memories, and
            personality traits. Journal of Personality76 (6), 631-664.
Pasupathi, M.,  Mansour, E., & Brubaker, J. R. (2007). Developing a life story: Constructing relations between self and experience in 
             autobiographical narratives. Human Development, 50 (2-3), 85-100. 
Singer, J. A., Rexhaj, B., & Baddeley, J. (2007). Older, wiser, and happier?: Comparing older adults’ and college students’ 
             self-defining memories. Memory, 15 (8), 886-898.
McLean, K. C. & Fournier, M. A. (2007). The content and processes of autobiographical reasoning in narrative identity. Journal of 
             Research in Personality, 42 (3), 527-525.
Singer, J. A. & Rexhaj, B. (2006). Narrative coherence and psychotherapy: A commentary. Journal of Constructivist Psychology19 
             (2), 209-217.
Wood, W. J. & Conway, M. (2006). Subjective impact, meaning making, and current and recalled emotions for self-defining 
             memories. Journal of Personality74(3), 811-846.
Conway, M. A. (2005). Memory and the self. Journal of Memory and Language, 53, 594-628. 
McLean, K. C. (2005). Late adolescent identity development: Narrative meaning making and memory telling. Developmental
             Psychology41 (4), 683-691.
Sutherland, K. & Bryant, R. A. (2005). Self-defining memories in post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Clinical 
             Psychology44 (4), 591-598.
Sutin, A. R. & Robins, R. W. (2005). Continuity and correlates of emotions and motives in self-defining memories. Journal of 
             Personality73 (3), 793-824.
Conway, M. A., Singer, J. A., & Tagini, A. (2004). The self and autobiographical memory: Correspondence and coherence. Social
             Cognition22 (5), 491-529.  
Blagov, P. & Singer, J. A. (2004). Four dimensions of self-defining memories (specificity, meaning, content, and affect) and their 
             relationships to self-restraint, distress, and repressive defensiveness. Journal of Personality72 (3), 481-511.
Singer, J. A. (2004). Narrative identity and meaning-making across the adult span: An Introduction. Journal of Personality72 (3), 437-459.
Singer, J. A. & Blagov, P. (2004). The integrative function of narrative processing: Autobiographical memory, self-defining memories, 
             and the life story of identity. In D. Beike, J. Lampinen, and D. Behrend  (Eds.), The self and memory (pp. 117-138). New
             York, NY: The Psychology Press.

Singer, J. A. & Blagov, P. (2004). Self-defining memories, narrative identity, and psychotherapy: A conceptual model, empirical 
             investigation, and case report. In L. E. Angus, and  J. McLeod (Eds.), Handbook of narrative and psychotherapy: Practice, theory
             and research (pp. 229-246). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Thorne, A., McLean, K. C., & Lawrence, A. (2004). When remembering is not enough: Reflecting on self-defining memories in late
             adolescence. Journal of Personality72 (3), 513-541.

McLean, A. & Thorne, K. C. (2003). Late adolescents' self-defining memories about relationships. Developmental Psychology39 (4),
Singer, J. A. & Bonalume, L. (2010). Autobiographical memory narratives in psychotherapy: A coding system applied to the case of
             Cynthia. Pragmatic Case Studies in Psychotherapy6 (3), 134-188 (Target Article for Issue).
McAdams, D. P., Bauer, J. J., Sakaeda, A. R., et al. (2006). Continuity and change in the life story: A longitudinal study of 
             autobiographical memories in emerging adulthood. Journal of Personality74 (5), 1371-1400.
Conway, M. A.,  Pleydell-Pearce, C. W., Whitecross, S., & Sharpe, H. (2002). Neurophysiological correlates of memory for 
             experienced and imagined events. Neuropsychologia41 (3), 334-340.
Lau, B. (2002). Wordsworth and current memory research. SEL42 (4), 675-692.
Singer, J. A. (1998). Applying a systems framework to self-defining memories. Psychological Inquiry9 (2), 161-164.
Singer, J. A. (1997). How recovered memory debates reduce the richness of human identity. Psychological Inquiry8 (4), 325-339.
Singer, J. A. (1992). Challenges to the integration of the psychoanalytic and cognitive perspectives on the self. Psychological Inquiry(1), 
Singer, J. A., King, L. A., Green, M. C., & Barr, S. C. (2002). Personal identity and civic responsibility: "Rising to the 
             occasion" narratives and generativity in community action student interns. Journal of Social Issues58 (3), 535-556.
Thorne, A. & McLean, K. C. (2002). Gendered reminiscence practices and self-definition in late adolescence. Sex Roles46 (9/10), 267-277.
Singer, J. A. (2001). Living in the amber cloud: A life story analysis of a heroin addict. In D. P. McAdams, and R. Josselson 
             (Eds.), Turns in the road: Narrative studies of lives in transition (pp. 253-277). Washington, DC: American Psychological 
Singer, J. A. & Bluck, S. (2001). New perspectives on autobiographical memory: The integration of narrative processing and
             autobiographical reasoning. Review of General Psychology(2), 91-99.
Watt, L. & Cappeliez, P. (2000). Integrative and instrumental reminiscence therapies for depression in older adults: Intervention 
             strategies and treatment effectiveness. Aging & Mental Health4(2), 166-177.
Josephson, B., Singer, J. A, & Salovey, P. (1996). Mood regulation and memory: Repairing sad moods with happy memories. Cognition
             and Emotion10 (4), 437-444.
Singer, J. A. (1995). Seeing one's self: Locating narrative memory in a framework of personality. Journal of Personality63 (3), 206-231. 
Moffitt, K. H., & Singer, J. A. (1994). Continuity in the life story: Self-defining memories, affect, and approach/avoidance personal 
             strivings. Journal of Personality, 62 (1), 21-43.
Moffitt, K., Singer, J. A., Nelligan, D., Carlson, M. & Vyse, S. (1994). Depression and memory narrative type. Journal of Abnormal 
             Psychology103 (3), 581-583.
Singer, J. A. & Moffitt, K. M. (1991-92). An experimental investigation of specificity and generality in memory narratives. Imagination, 
             Cognition, and Personality11 (3), 235-258.
Singer, J. A. (1990). Affective responses to autobiographical memories and their relationship to long-term goals. Journal of 
             Personality58 (3), 535-563.
Singer, J. A. (2006). Memory, emotion, and psychotherapy: Maximizing the positive functions of self-defining memories. In R. Uttl,                  A. Siegenthaler, and N. Ohta (Eds.), Memory and emotion: Interdisciplinary perspectives (pp. 211-232). Oxford: Blackwell                    Press. 
Singer, J. A. (2004). A love story: Self-defining memories in couples therapy. In R. Josselson, D. P. McAdams, R. Josselson, and A.
             Lieblich (Eds), Healing plots: Narrative and psychotherapy (pp. 189-208). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Baddeley, J. & Singer, J. A. (2007). Charting the life story’s path: Narrative identity across the life span. In J. Clandinin (Ed.),
             Handbook of Narrative Inquiry: Mapping a methodology (pp. 177-202). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 
McKay, C. d., Singer, J. A., & Conway, M. A. (In press). Psychological disorders and autobiographical memory: Examining memory 
             specificity, affective content, and meaning-making. In A. Mishara, P. Corlett, P. Fletcher, and M. Schwartz 
             (Eds.), Phenomenological neuropsychiatry: How patient experience bridges clinic with clinical neuroscience
             New York: Springer.
Singer, J. A., Singer, B. F., & Berry, M. (2013). A meaning-based intervention for addiction: Using narrative therapy and mindfulness to 
             treat alcohol abuse. In J. Hicks and C. Routledge (Eds.), The experience of meaning in life: Classical perspectives, emerging  
             themes, and controversies (pp. 379-391). New York: Springer.

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Singer, J. A. & Conway, M. A. (2008). Should we forget forgetting? Memory Studies1(3), 279-285.
Hayden, J. M., Singer, J. A., & Chrisler, J. C. (2006). The transmission of birth stories from mother to daughter: Self-esteem and 
             mother-daughter attachment. Sex Roles55 (5), 373-383.
Phillipe, F. L., Koestner, R., Beaulieu-Pelletier, G., & Lecours, S. (2011) The role of need satisfaction as a distinct and basic 
             psychological component of autobiographical memories: A look at well-being. Journal of Personality79(5), 905-938. 
Sutin, A. R. & Stockdale, G. D. (2011). Trait dissociation and the subjective affective, motivational, and phenomenological experience of
             self-defining memories. Journal of Personality, 79(5), 939-963. 
Singer, J. A. (2013). Lost in translation? Finding the person in the emerging paradigm of clinical science: Introduction to a special
             issue on personality and psychotherapy. Journal of Personality, 81(6), 511-514.
Harkness, T. (2011). A narrative approach to understanding vulnerability to depression. (Doctoral dissertation). Swinburne 
             University of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.
Raymond, K., Singer, J. & Lam, D. (2011). The influence of mood on self-defining memories in bipolar disorder. Manuscript 
             submitted for publication.
Jobson, L. & O'Kearney, R. (2006). Cultural differences in autobiographical memory of trauma. Clinical Psychologist, 10(3), 89-98.
Jobson, L. & O'Kearney, R. (2008). Cultural differences in retrieval of self-defining memories. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology,
             39(1), 75-80.
Raffard, S., D’Argembeau, A., Lardi, C., Bayard, S., Boulenger, J., & Van der Linden, M. (2010). Narrative identity in schizophrenia. 
             Consciousness and Cognition19(1), 328-340.
Sutin, A. R. & Gillath, O. (2009). Autobiographical memory phenomenology and content mediate attachment style and psychological
             distress. Journal of Counseling Psychology56(3), 351-364.
Dutton, S. E., Singer, J. A., & Devlin, A. S. (1998). Racial identity of children in integrated, predominantly White, and
             Black schools. The Journal of Social Psychology, 138(1), 41-53.
Jardine, K. F. (1999). Transitions of women counsellors-in-training: Self-defining memories, narratives, and possible 
             selves. Dissertation, University of Victoria, British Columbia, Victoria, Canada.
Cristi, C. (2000). Effects of manipulating the mood components of valence and arousal on the specificity of autobiographical memory in 
             nondepressed women. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Ottowa, Canada.
McAdams, D. P. (2001). The psychology of life stories. Review of General Psychology, 5(2), 100-122.
Voronov, M. & Singer, J. A. (2002). The myth of individualism-collectivism: A critical review. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142(4), 
Hayes, C. (2004). Ethics in end-of-life care. Journal of Hospice & Palliative Nursing, 6(1), 36-43.
Gaydos, H. L. (2005). Understanding personal narratives: An approach to practice. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 49(3), 254-259.
Langens, T. A. & Schüler, J. (2005). Written emotional expression and emotional well-being: The moderating role of fear of rejection. 
             Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(6), 818-830.
Van Schalkwyk, G. J. (2005). Explorations of post-divorce experiences: Women's reconstructions of self. The Australian and New 
             Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 26(2), 90-97.
Coleman, P. T., Goldman, J. S., & Kugler, K. G. (2006, February). Emotional intractability: The effects of perceptions of emotional roles 
             on immediate and delayed conflict outcomes. Paper presented at the International Association for Conflict Management 19th 
             Annual Conference, Quebec, Canada.
Kuyken, W. & Howell, R. (2006). Facets of autobiographical memory in adolescents with major depressive disorder and never-
             depressed controls. Cognition and Emotion, 20(3), 466-487.
McLean, K. C. & Pasupathi, M. (2006). Collaborate narration of the past and extraversion. Journal of Research in Personality, 40(6), 
Riskind, J. H. & Williams, N. L. (2006). A unique vulnerability common to all anxiety disorders: The looming maladaptive style. In L. 
             B. Alloy & J. H. Riskind (Eds.), Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders (pp. 175 – 206). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence 
             Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Braun-LaTour, K. A. & LaTour, M. S. (2007). Using childhood memory elicitation to gain insights into a brand at a crossroads: The In-
             N-Out burger situation. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 48(3), 246-273.
Braun-LaTour, K. A., LaTour, M. S., & Zinkhan, G. M. (2007). Using childhood memories to gain insight into brand meaning. Journal 
             of Marketing, 71(2), 45-60.
Havassy, A. (2007). Autobiographical reasoning in memories of academic successes and failures of college students. Unpublished 
Joormann, J., Siemer, M., & Gotlib, I. H. (2007). Mood regulation in depression: Differential effects of distraction and recall of happy 
             memories on sad mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(3), 484-490.
Patel, T., Brewin, C. R., Wheatley, J., Wells, A., Fisher, P., & Myers, S. (2007). Intrusive images and memories in major depression.
             Behavior Research and Therapy, 45, 2573-2580.
Patterson, C. L. & Singer, J. A. (2007-2008). Exploring the role of expectancies in the mental and physical health outcomes of written 
             self-disclosure. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 27(2), 99-115.
Sakuma, M. J. (2007, March 20). [Review of the book Personality and psychotherapy: Treating the whole person, by J. Singer].
             Metapsychology Online Reviews, 11(12).
Van Schalkwyk, G. J. (2007). Choreographing learning in developmental psychology utilising multi-generational genograms and 
             reflective journal writing. International Education Journal, 8(1), 127-138.
Baddeley, J. L. & Singer, J. A. (2008). Telling losses: Personality correlates and functions of bereavement narratives. Journal of 
             Research in Personality, 42, 421-438.
Boritz, T. Z., Angus, L., Monette, G., & Hollis-Walker, L. (2008). An empirical analysis of autobiographical memory specificity 
             subtypes in brief emotion-focused and client-centered treatments of depression. Psychotherapy Research, 18(5), 584-593.
Boritz, T. Z., Bryntwick, E., & Angus, L. E. (2008, June 1). Working with autobiographical memory narratives in psychotherapy. The 
             Division of Psychotherapy. Retrieved from
Hagberg, G. (2008). Describing ourselves: Wittgenstein and autobiographical consciousness. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.
Jobson, L. & O'Kearney, R. (2008). Cultural differences in personal identity in post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of 
             Clinical Psychology, 47(1), 95-109.
Rathbone, C. J., Moulin, C. J. A., & Conway, M. A. (2008). Self-centered memories: The reminiscence bump and the self. Memory & 
             Cognition, 36(8), 1403-1414.
Singer, J. A. (2008, April 23). Relation shapes: Intimate constructions of self and other. [Review of the book Playing Pygmalion: How 
             people create one another, by R. Josselson]. Retrieved from
Singer, J. A. (2008). The rich bounty of international collaboration. Psychology International, 19(5), 10-11.
Sutin, A. R. (2008). Autobiographical memory as a dynamic process: Autobiographical memory mediates basic tendencies and 
             characteristic adaptations. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(4), 1060-1066.
Bluck, S. & Alea, N. (2009). Characteristics of positive autobiographical memories in adulthood. The International Journal of Aging 
             and Human Development, 69(4), 247-265.
Cox, C. E., Docherty, S. L., Brandon, D. H., et al. (2009). Surviving critical illness: The acute respiratory distress syndrome as 
             experienced by patients and their caregivers. Critical Care Medicine, 37(10), 2702-2708.
Hassebrock, F. & Boyle, B. (2009). Memory and narrative: Reading The things they carried for psyche and persona. Across the 
             Disciplines, 6. Retrieved from
Hunter, C. (2009, November 12). [Review of the book Romantic echoes in the Victorian era, by A. Radford & M. Sandy (Eds.)]. 
             Romantic Textualities, 19. Retrieved from
Lodi-Smith, J., Geise, A. C., Roberts, B. W., & Robins, R. W. (2009). Narrating personality change. Journal of Personality and Social 
             Psychology, 96(3), 679-689.
Sönmez, C. C. (2009). Self-defining memories: Characteristics and the link with self-concept and goals. (Master's thesis.) 
Summerfield, J. J., Hassabis, D., & Maguire, E. A. (2009). Cortical midline involvement in autobiographical memory. NeuroImage, 44(3), 
Thomsen, D. K. (2009). There is more to life stories than memories. Memory, 17(4), 445-457.
Ballinger, G. A. & Rockmann, K. W. (2010). Chutes versus ladders: Anchoring events and a punctuated-equilibrium perspective on 
             social exchange relationships. Academy of Management Review, 35(3), 373-391.
Crone, T. & Beike, D. (2010, January). Can the benefits of self-defining memories be obtained from a closed memory? Poster 
             presented at the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology.
Knaack, N. C. (2010). Narrative foreclosure bij ouderen: De samenhang tussen narrative foreclosure en self-defining memories. 
             (Master's thesis.) University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.
Niedźwieńska, A. & Świeży, M. (2010). The self-defining function of recalling personal memories and identity status. Identity: An 
             International Journal of Theory and Research, 10(4), 304-310.
Smith, M. N. (2010). Practical imagination and its limits. Philosophers' Imprint, 10(3), 1-20.
Valish, F. (2010). Thanks for the memories: Artists and the early experiences that shaped them. Under the Radar, 32, 51-52.
Van Schalkwyk, G. J. (2010). Collage life story elicitation technique: A representational technique for scaffolding autobiographical 
             memories. The Qualitative Report, 15(3), 675-695.
Weststrate, N. M. & McLean, K. C. (2010). The rise and fall of gay: A cultural-historical approach to gay identity development.
             Memory, 18(2), 225-240.
Barkai, A. R. & Rappaport, N. (2011). A psychiatric perspective on narratives of self-reflection in resilient adolescents. Adolescent 
             Psychiatry, 1(1), 46-54.
Berna, F., Bennouna-Greene, M., Potheegadoo, J., Verry, P., Conway, M. A., & Danion, J. (2011). Impaired ability to give a meaning
             to personally significant events in patients with schizophrenia. Consciousness and Cognition, 20, 703-711.
Fivush, R., Habermas, T., Waters, T. E. A., & Zaman, W. (2011). The making of autobiographical memory: Intersections of culture, 
             narratives and identity. International Journal of Psychology, 46(5), 321-345.
Hall, J. A. (2011). Mental imagery, self-defining memories and emotion in individuals likely to develop bipolar disorder. (Doctoral 
             dissertation). University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom.
Jobson, L. (2011). Cultural differences in levels of autonomous orientation in autobiographical remembering in posttraumatic 
             stress disorder. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25(2), 175-182.
Lowinger, R. R. (2011). Sense of meaning in context: A study of meaning for past events in relation to future goals, and in 
             relation to intrusions and personality over time. (Doctoral thesis). Condordia University Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Singer, J. A. (2011). “Location, location, location”: How narrative therapy shifts our thinking and practice from personal to relational, 
             social, and political concerns [Review of the book Narrative therapy, by S. Madigan]. PsycCritiques, 56(23).
Alyusheva, A. R. & Nourkova, V. V. (2012). Identity formation and autobiographical memory: Two interrelated concepts of 
             development. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 66, 285-288.
D'Argembeau, A., Lardi, C., & Van der Linden, M. (2012). Self-defining future projections: Exploring the identity function of 
             thinking about the future. Memory, 20(2), 110-120.
Jørgensen, C. R., Berntsen, D., Bech, M., Kjølbye, M., Bennedsen, B. E., & Ramsgaard, S. B. (2012). Identity-related
             autobiographical memories and cultural life scripts in patients with Borderline Personality Disorder. Consciousness and 
             Cognition, 21(2), 788-798.
Knez, I. (2012). Place and the self: An autobiographical memory synthesis. Philosophical Psychology, 1-29.
Lardi Robyn, C., Ghisletta, P., & Van der Linden, M. (2012). Self-defining memories and self-defining future projections in 
             hypomania-prone individuals. Consciousness and Cognition, 21 (2), 764-774.
Philippe, F. L., Koestner, R., Beaulieu-Pelletier, G., Lecours, S., & Lekes, N. (2012). The role of episodic memories in current and 
             future well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38(4), 505-519.
Popova, M. (2012). The science of sleep: Dreaming, depression, and how REM sleep regulates negative emotions. Retrieved from 
Syed, M. (2012). College students' storytelling of ethnicity-related events in the academic domain. Journal of Adolescent Research, 
             27(2), 203-230.
Uzer, T., Lee, P. J., & Brown, N. R. (2012). On the prevalence of directly retrieved autobiographical memories. Journal of 
             Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 38(5), 1296-1308.
Werner-Seidler, A. & Moulds, M. L. (2012). Characteristics of self-defining memory in depression vulnerability. Memory, 20(8), 
Werner-Seidler, A. & Moulds, M. L. (2012). Mood repair and processing mode in depression. Emotion, 12(3), 470-478.
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